A structural load could be of any form say force, acceleration, or displacement. The structural load introduces stress in the building or structure in any form of tensile stress, compressive stress, torsional stress, shear stress or bending stress.
A structure must be designed to withstand again all the anticipated stresses and stay safe for the occupants.
Following are different loads acting on structures and buildings.
Dead loads on structure
This is a vertically downward load because of gravity. A load of structural members like beams, columns, slabs, flooring, staircases, fixed furniture, parapets, and a load of all the walls and skirtings is considered in this type. A load of fixed furniture is also calculated in dead loads.
Generally, a dead load is considered as having a fixed position in the building or the structure and do not change its loading intensity over time. This dead load is ultimately get transferred to the foundation.
Live load on structures
All the moving load that a structure is supposed to be experiencing in its operation time is called live load. The consideration of live load for design is done by assuming it as a uniformly distributed load.
The calculation of live load is done by taking it as a KN / m2.
This is essentially a horizontal load that acts on a structure. For low-rise buildings and comparatively small buildings and structures, this load is not of concern for analysis.
The consideration of wind load becomes more and more in the case of high-rise buildings, skyscrapers, and bridges especially cable-stayed bridges and suspension bridges. The dam structures, radio or TV antennas, and transmission line towers also experience heavy wind load. Thus, they should be designed accordingly them.
Indian standards have stipulated how to analyze and design wing load in IS 875 (part 3) – 2015.
It is an impulsive horizontal load that a structure experiences during an earthquake. As per Indian standards, all framed buildings should be designed for earthquakes.
The intensity of earthquake load depends on many things. Some of these are, the height of the building, design of the foundation, structural configuration, magnitude of the earthquake, distance from the epicenter, and focal depth of the earthquake.
Snow load becomes essential to study in countries like Canada or America. In the hot regions of India, it is not necessary to design structures of building for snow load.