Water Demand

Factors Affecting Water Demand

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Ascertaining water demand is crucial in planning water resources management. There are a number of factors affecting water demand. Water demand fluctuates with seasonal changes. Water demand is highly dependent on the following factors.

Nature of Water Supply:

Water can be supplied continuously or intermittently. 24-hour availability of water makes water consumption higher than intermittent supply.

Climatic conditions:

Extreme weather conditions boost water consumption. Too hot or too cold climates need higher water. Whereas moderate climate condition leads to lower water demand.

Lifestyle of People:

Urban lifestyle demands higher water consumption than rural localities. Also, in urban lifestyle, there is more demand of water because of hymenitis.

Metering System:

Metered water connection gives people a sense of responsibility to not to waste water. Whereas, in unmetered connections, people waste water without thinking twice.

Quality of Water Supplies to Households:

Good quality of available water makes people use more water. As municipal corporations supply bad quality water, people will use it less.

Available Sanitation Facilities:

If proper and good sanitation facilities are available to the community more water is needed to fulfill these requirements.

Size of the City:

With the increase in population of the city, water demand rises significantly. This is due to more usage of water is done in public amenities and cleaning of roads.

Age of the community:

Water demand is high in the newly developed cities. This is because of more activities of construction and infrastructure development.

Pressure in the pipeline:

If water is supplied with high pressure, then consumption of water tends to increase, and also the wastage of water will increase.

Industrial and Commercial activities:

If in the city, there are high industrial and commercial growth then it will lead to higher consumption of water.


It is essential to have knowledge of the water demand of a city for pre-planning of the public facilities and amenities. Proper knowledge of water demand will result in good town planning.

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As per Indian Standards, how much water is needed in a day per capita?

135 Liters of water is needed per capita per day.